The development level of grain transportation through river and sea transport is quite high, it is ahead of the CIS countries. But in order to become competitive among European states and the United States, a number of issues need to be addressed. Transportation of grain by river transport is a promising industry. It will help to improve the introduction of transportation methods used in other countries.
Grain Transportation by river transport: problems and solutions
River and sea transport is used to deliver grain, mineral raw materials, various goods. Thanks to modern technology, it is possible to significantly improve this method of transportation, reduce the time of travel and reduce costs.
The country has a number of problems that hamper the development of this segment. The main one is corruption in the field of state regulation and monopolization of the industry. River transportation is represented by only one operator, sea – by several. They are actively promoting their interests, lobbying for government decisions, which negatively affects the development of the market. For example, in the USA there are no restrictions, and an investor has the right to build a terminal for export or to purchase a barge. So he enters the business and affects the entire industry.
The second problem is the limited bank financing. These institutions often refuse to provide funds for promising projects. Unfortunately, government funding for private business is not provided.
The grain is delivered to the port by car or by rail, but recently this scheme is not attractive for grain traders. The monopolization of the market, high costs forced to switch to a more accessible form of transport – river. Therefore, the issue of river grain terminals for import and export becomes relevant. For this, there are two developed water arteries in the country – the Dnieper and the Southern Bug. Other rivers have a number of features and are not suitable for transportation.
In order for such routes to be fully utilized, the industry requires significant investment. Means are needed to deepen the fairways and waters. Grain transportation is carried out by such river transport as barges and tugs. Ships are used only for terminals located in the lower reaches and delta of the river. The terminals themselves are different – standard berths and modern automated complexes.
An excellent solution for river transportation can be the introduction of an automated control system that allows you to monitor the movement of vessels online. Such navigation successfully works in the USA, with its help traffic flows are optimized.
Now, various methods are used for handling grain, the most common are:
● motor transport/railway transport – sea ship;
● motor transport/railway transport – an elevator in the port – a ship;
● motor transport/railway transport – a barge – sea ship.
Port elevators serve to store grain until the volume needed for export is reached.
The development of river transport for the transportation of grain is a promising and interesting sector for investment, which may be an affordable alternative to imperfect transportation by rail.