Ukrainian land is famous for its black soil – a statement that for a long time was an irrefutable fact. But unfortunately, it does not correspond to reality. Experts say a sharp decrease in the amount of humus. Its content in soil over 100 years has decreased from 12% to 3-4%. Ukrainian chernozems need a comprehensive restoration, otherwise, they will continue to lose their properties.
Why Ukrainian black soil loses fertility
Excessive use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers, uncontrolled plowing lead to the fact that one of the most fertile soils loses its properties. To stop the process and enrich the soil, you should take advantage of innovative developments and modern technologies in the field of agriculture.
Experts of the Scientific Research Institute “Plant Health” are concerned with the condition of black soil and monitor changes in the content of humus in the soil. Over the past century alone, its concentration has dropped to 3-4%. Over the past five years, black soil has lost its fertility by 0.04% – the speed of processes is critical. The reasons for this are varied. One of them: the development of the soil, and therefore expand arable land is almost impossible. In addition, extensive farming was actively developed in Ukraine, as a result of which intensive plowing of the soil took place – up to 80%, and more than 90% in some regions of the country: Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev, Kirovograd. When compared with other states, the statistics are as follows:
● average plowing in Western Europe – up to 31%;
● in India – 30%;
● in China and the USA – 25%;
● The figure in England, Canada, and Germany range from 25 to 45%.
Excessive aggressive plowing leads to the processes of erosion and mineralization of organic substances in the ground. Because of this, the soil layer is washed off, where organic elements are concentrated most of all, and nutrient reserves are contained.
Compounding the picture of soil erosion, the absence or reduction of nutrients, soil pollution. Agricultural machinery, carrying out work, compacts the earth, preventing the necessary substances from penetrating into it, while radionuclides, pesticides remain deep.
To improve the condition of the soil, a special technique has been developed in the world, advanced mineral fertilizers and plant protection products are being used. In many countries, the rational use of land is clearly monitored. For this purpose, highly accurate soil treatment and care systems are introduced, which have a minimal effect on its structure.
To preserve the Ukrainian black soil, it is also necessary to include such events. It is important to control crop rotation, work with sown areas. Actions to prevent erosion must be carried out, and only organic fertilizers should be used for harvest.
But, in order to effectively influence the processes of soil depletion, it is necessary to study in detail their current state. The real picture will help draw up detailed plans for restoring and returning the land of its wealth.